July 2022 Jurisdiction Update

Monthly reports share short summary highlights of tracked legislative bills and rules & regulations that have seen recent activity, as well as available board and state VMA updates. 

There are two report views available! The July 2022 Conventional Report sorts the same reported items by activity and topic. 

Updates by Jurisdiction


Effective: July 24, 2022 

Alaska Administrative Code – Title 12 Department of Commerce, Community, and Economic Development; Board of Veterinary Examiners regulations re: exams, records, PDMP, and definitions 

Filed 06/24/22 

The linked pages of regulations, dealing with examinations, medical records, prescription drug monitoring programs, and definitions were adopted at the Board of Veterinary Examiner’s April 6, 2022 meeting. 



Veterinarian – Loan Programs/Shortages

AZ HB2862 The amount appropriated to the college of veterinary medicine line item shall be distributed to the college of veterinary medicine to increase the number of students that are residents of this state. Before spending these monies, the University of Arizona shall report to the joint legislative budget committee all of the following information for the college of veterinary medicine: 

  1. The current number of students who are residents of this state.
  2. The current number of students who are not residents of this state.
  3. With these monies, the proposed number of students who are residents of this state.
  4. With these monies, the proposed number of students who are not residents of this state.

College of veterinary medicine – $8,000,000 
Veterinary loan assistance program – $6,000,000 


AZ HB2864 
C. A person who obtains a doctor of veterinary medicine degree from a veterinary college after January 1, 2023, and who signs an agreement pursuant to subsection d of this section may apply to the board to participate in the program. 

  1. To participate in the program, the board shall require an applicant to sign an agreement to both:
  2. Remain and work as a full-time veterinarian in this state for the following four years.
  3. Work in one of the following practice areas for at least two of the four years:

                    (a) agricultural practice in an area designated by the united states department of
                         agriculture as having a shortage.
                    (b) a nonprofit, county, or municipal shelter. 

State Appropriations

AZ SB1729 Requires ADG to report quarterly the number of equine deaths and injuries that occurred as a result of a horse race and the amount of pre-race inspections performed by a veterinarian employed by or contracting with the state. 

Provide $8 million to increase residents in veterinary medicine and $6 million for the loan repayment program. 


New animal disease reporting rules may arrive this year 

Proposal would require immediate reports for dangerous diseases  

Federal animal health officials continue developing a national animal disease reporting system and may publish the program’s rules within six months. 

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service in March 2020 published draft standards for the proposed U.S. National List of Reportable Animal Diseases. In response to an inquiry from AVMA News, APHIS spokesman Mike Stepien said in a message that agency officials are working on the final rule and aiming for publication in 2022. 

“APHIS will work with stakeholders to implement the NLRAD rule on a timeline that ensures maximum participation and success,” he said.  

The AVMA, other organizations representing veterinarians, and stakeholders representing agriculture industries expressed support for the NLRAD concept and identified specific issues or provisions that they would like to see addressed in greater detail by the final regulations. The agency sought those comments after publishing the draft standards in 2020. 

The U.S. already has the National Animal Health Reporting System, a voluntary system through which state animal health officials report monthly on World Organisation for Animal Health–reportable diseases and some other animal diseases considered important. The NLRAD regulations would add mandatory disease reporting across the U.S. with immediate notification to APHIS and state animal health officials. 

Stepien said the NLRAD would help APHIS respond to emerging pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2 because it would give APHIS authority to require national disease reporting of infections in animals.  

“The information gathered through NLRAD will provide a national baseline of animal disease across the U.S. and improve early disease detection and response, including emerging pathogens with zoonotic potential like SARS-CoV-2,” he said.  

The draft rule indicates APHIS officials plan to include two tiers of diseases. One tier is for notifiable diseases and conditions for which the agency will require immediate reports when veterinarians or other animal health professionals suspect or identify cases. The other tier is for monitored diseases that state agencies and animal health diagnostic laboratories will describe in monthly reports. 

“If you suspect an emerging animal disease, you must report it as soon as you think an animal or groups of animals are infected,” the draft rule states. “This awareness may be through observation of case-compatible clinical signs, laboratory test–positive samples, or other knowledge of infection.” 

The proposed list of reportable diseases published in 2020 is still based on the World Organisation of Animal Health list of reportable animal diseases. While the contents of the proposed list are focused on diseases of farm animals, it includes some diseases that affect companion animals, zoo animals, and wildlife, as well as endangered agricultural animals. 

“The purpose of the NLRAD is to have consistent animal disease reporting across the United States and to help animal health officials protect the U.S. agriculture infrastructure,” the draft standards state. 

The NLRAD requirements would support trade and international disease reporting obligations as well as aid responses to emerging diseases, the document states. 

Stepien said in his message that APHIS’ ongoing preparations for the NLRAD include reaching out to stakeholders and communicating with them about the program as well as outlining the roles, responsibilities, and expectations that will come with the program. 

Examples of notifiable diseases listed by the NLRAD would include highly pathogenic avian influenza, an H5N1 strain of which has killed tens of millions of poultry in an epizootic across much of North America this year; chronic wasting disease, which is a neurodegenerative disease spreading among cervids across the U.S. and Canada; rabbit hemorrhagic disease, which has killed unknown numbers of rabbits and hares in the Western U.S. in recent years; and African swine fever, a highly contagious disease that can kill entire herds and emerged last year in the Dominican Republic and Haiti. 

In response to the NLRAD proposal, AVMA CEO Dr. Janet Donlin wrote in May 2020 that the Association supports development and implementation of a national list of reportable animal diseases. But she requested that the agency define in the regulations the formal training needed for accurate presumptive diagnosis of a reportable animal disease, develop a single portal for filing reports with state and federal officials rather than requiring dual reporting, and ensure the NLRAD does not fracture existing surveillance systems or burden state agencies with duplicative work. 

A May 2020 letter from the National Assembly of State Animal Health Officials, which represents state veterinarians, similarly calls for a definition of formal training for animal health professionals and a single reporting system. That letter also asks that the rules address reporting of notifiable diseases found in wildlife, more precisely define immediate reporting, clarify how the reporting rules will be enforced, incorporate exotic parasites into the reportable disease list, and consider adding diseases of concern identified by the American Fisheries Society. 

 Other organizations, such as the National Milk Producers Federation and Texas Cattle Feeders Association, also asked that the regulations address confidentiality and privacy concerns connected with disease reporting. 


Gene therapy may soon help treat mitral valve disease  

Two companies are partnering on development of a gene therapy for mitral valve disease in dogs. 

Phibro Animal Health, an animal nutrition, and health products company, and Rejuvenate Bio, which develops gene therapies and other tools to fight age-related diseases of humans and dogs, announced in June they plan to file for conditional approval of their product as early as 2023. 

The companies indicated the product will help fight mitral valve malfunctions that let blood flow back from the left ventricle into the atrium, known as mitral regurgitation. The condition is thought to affect about 7% of dogs and can affect up to 80% of certain breeds such as Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, the announcement states.  

The American Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Club is supporting the research. 

Information from Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine indicates mitral and tricuspid regurgitation are also common among Miniature Poodles, Shih Tzus, Maltese, Chihuahuas, Cocker Spaniels, Miniature Schnauzers, Dachshunds, Whippets, and Pomeranians, especially dogs past 8 years old.  

“Many dogs in the early stages have no clinical signs or they are so subtle that owners just believe that a dog is ‘slowing down’ because of age or other common aging changes such as arthritis,” Cornell information states. “Clinical signs do include exercise intolerance, coughing, trouble breathing, increased breathing rate, collapse, or weakness.” 

Phibro’s announcement indicates mitral valve disease is often diagnosed by a characteristic murmur. 

“The disease may have few or no outward effects at first, but over months or years can progress to congestive heart failure and death,” the announcement states.  

Thomas Zerzan, president of Phibro’s Companion Animal Division, said company officials are confident the collaborators would develop and market a treatment that can halt mitral valve disease as well as reverse at least some damage to the heart. Daniel Oliver, CEO of Rejuvenate Bio, said his company sees this collaboration as the first step toward treating many age-related diseases of animals.  


Animal Welfare

CA SB132 The University of California, Davis, school of veterinary medicine shall develop a program called the California veterinary emergency team. the program shall assist in the support and training of a network of government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and individuals to assist in the evacuation and care of household and domestic animals and livestock in emergencies statewide, including disaster preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. 

Veterinary Technician

CA SB1495 adds Organization or a National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America-Recognized Veterinary Specialty to licensing qualifications. 

(4) Existing law, the Veterinary Medicine Practice Act, establishes the Veterinary Medical Board in the Department of Consumer Affairs for the licensure and regulation of veterinarians. Existing law requires a licensee to biennially apply for renewal of their license, and requires the board to issue renewal to those applicants that have completed a minimum of 36 hours of continuing education in the preceding 2 years. Existing law generally requires continuing education hours to be earned by attending courses relevant to veterinary medicine and sponsored or cosponsored by certain entities.

This bill would delete an obsolete provision relating to continuing education hours earned by attending courses sponsored or cosponsored by those entities between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2001.

The Veterinary Medicine Practice Act authorizes the board to deny, revoke, or suspend a licensee or registrant or assess a fine if a licensee or registrant makes a statement, claim, or advertisement that they are a veterinary specialist or board certified unless they are certified by a specified organization.

This bill would add an additional organization to certify a licensee or registrant for this purpose.

Non-Economic Damages Related

CA AB1881 states that (a) Dogs and cats have the right to be respected as sentient beings that experience complex feelings that are common among living animals while being unique to each individual animal(g) Ownership or guardianship of a companion animal requires an investment of time and resources. Selecting a companion animal that is suited to one’s home and lifestyle will lead to a more rewarding relationship between guardian and animal while reducing relinquished or abandoned animals in our communities. (h) Dogs and cats thrive with regular enrichment to maintain their physical and emotional well-being (a) Dogs and cats have the right to be free from exploitation, cruelty, neglect, and abuse. (b) Dogs and cats have the right to a life of comfort, free of fear and anxiety. (c) Dogs and cats have the right to daily mental stimulation and appropriate exercise. (d) Dogs and cats have the right to nutritious food, sanitary water, and shelter in an appropriate and safe environment. (e) Dogs and cats have the right to preventive and therapeutic health care. (f) Dogs and cats have the right to be properly identified through tags, microchips, or other humane means. (g) Dogs and cats have the right to be spayed and neutered to prevent unwanted litters. Hearing 08/01/22 

Practitioners General

CA AB1662 This bill would authorize a prospective applicant that has been convicted of a crime to submit to a board a request for a pre-application determination that includes information provided by the prospective applicant regarding their criminal conviction. The bill would require a board that receives that request to determine if the prospective applicant would be disqualified from licensure by the board based on the information submitted with the request, and deliver that determination to the prospective applicant. Hearing 08/01/22 

Reportable/Zoonotic Diseases

CA SB1029 creates the One Health Program and requires the State Department of Public Health and the Department of Food and Agriculture to jointly establish and administer the One Health Program for the purpose of developing a framework for interagency coordination in responding to zoonotic diseases and reducing hazards to human and nonhuman animal health, in accordance with the One Health principles set forth by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hearing 08/03/22.

Veterinary – Cannabis

CA AB1885 requires the Veterinary Board to adopt guidelines by 01/01/24, or veterinarians to follow when recommending cannabis within the veterinarian-client-patient-relationship, and would require the board to post the guidelines on its internet website. Hearing 08/03/22 

The California Veterinary Medical Board will meet by teleconference on July 20th and July 21st 


10:00 a.m., Wednesday, July 20, 2022 

1.Call to Order/Roll Call/Establishment of a Quorum 

2. Public Comment on Items Not on the Agenda 
    Note: The Board may not discuss or take action on any matter raised during this public comment section, 
    except to decide whether to place the matter on the agenda of a future meeting. (Government Code
11125, 11125.7(a).) 

3. Review and Approval of April 20-21, 2022 Board Meeting Minutes 

4. Report and Update from the Department of Consumer Affairs (DCA) 

5. Review, Discussion, and Possible Action on Multidisciplinary Advisory Committee (MDC) Report – Richard Sullivan, DVM, Chair, MDC  
           a. Overview of July 19, 2022, MDC Meeting 
Recommendation Regarding Board Guidelines for Veterinarian Discussion of Cannabis
               Within the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship 
Recommendation to Revise Veterinarian-Client-Patient-Relationship Frequently Asked Questions 
Recommendation on Proposed Amendments to California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 16,
               Sections 2030.3, Small Animal Vaccination Clinic, and 2032.1, Veterinarian-Client-Patient
               Relationship, in Alternate Premises Rulemaking
           e. Recommendation Regarding Veterinary Drug Compounding Guidance 
            f. MDC 2022 Assignments 

6. Update, Discussion, and Possible Action Regarding Equine Practice Issues 

7. Update on the Board’s Enforcement Continuing Education Webinar  

8. Access to Veterinary Care Task Force Report – Jaymie Noland, DVM, and Dianne Prado 

9. Interviews, Discussion, and Possible Appointment to Fill Vacant Wellness Evaluation Committee
    Veterinarian and Public Member Positions

10. Update, Discussion, and Possible Action on 2021/2022 Legislation Impacting the Board, DCA,
       and/or the Veterinary Profession
              a. Priority Legislation for Board Consideration 
                         1. Assembly Bill (AB) 189 (Committee on Budget, 2021) State Government 
AB 1662 (Gipson, 2022) Licensing boards: disqualification from licensure: criminal
AB 1733 (Quirk, 2022) State bodies: open meetings 
AB 1885 (Kalra, 2022) Cannabis and cannabis products: animals: veterinary medicine 
AB 2606 (Carrillo, 2022) Cats: declawing procedures: prohibition; and Any Other Potential
                             Legislation Related to Prohibiting Cat Declawing

Senate Bill (SB) 1031 (Ochoa Bogh, 2022) Healing arts boards: inactive license fees 
SB 1495 (Committee on Business, Professions and Economic Development, 2022)
                             Professions and vocations
              b. Other Board-Monitored Legislation 
AB 225 (Gray, 2021) Department of Consumer Affairs: boards: veterans: military
                             spouses: licenses
AB 1604 (Holden, 2022) The Upward Mobility Act of 2022: boards and commissions:
                             civil service: examinations: classifications
AB 1795 (Fong, 2022) Open meetings: remote participation 
AB 1881 (Santiago, 2022) Animal welfare: Dog and Cat Bill of Rights 
AB 2055 (Low, 2022) Controlled substances: CURES database 
AB 2104 (Flora, 2022) Professions and vocations 
AB 2642 (Mayes, 2022) Department of Consumer Affairs: director:
                             powers and duties
AB 2948 (Cooper, 2022) Consumer protection: Department of Consumer Affairs:
SB 1237 (Newman, 2022) Licenses: military service 
SB 1310 (Leyva, 2022) Professions and vocations: consumer complaints 
SB 1365 (Jones, 2022) Licensing boards: procedures 

11. Update, Discussion, and Possible Action on Proposed Regulations 
              a. Status Update on Pending Regulations 

12. Recess until July 21, 2022, at 9:00 a.m. 

9:00 a.m., Thursday, July 21, 2022 

13. Reconvene – Establishment of a Quorum 

14. Board President Report – Kathy Bowler 

15. Registered Veterinary Technician Report – Jennifer Loredo, RVT 

16. Update, Discussion, and Possible Action on National Association Involvement Reports – Kathy Bowler, and Jessica Sieferman 
International Council for Veterinary Assessment 
          a. American Association of Veterinary State Boards (AAVSB), Member and Program
              Services Think Tank
AAVSB Executive Director Roundtable and Telehealth Guidelines 
AAVSB Call for Nominations 
AAVSB Proposed Bylaws Amendments 
17. Student Liaison Reports 
University of California, Davis Liaison – Amanda Ayers 
Western University of Health Sciences Liaison – Kristina Junghans 
18. Executive Management Reports 
Strategic Plan 
19. Future Agenda Items and Next Meeting Dates 
20. Special Order of Business (1:00 p.m.) 
Hearing on Petition for Early Termination of Probation – Suzanne Kay Hanson,
               Veterinarian License No. 9593

Hearing on Petition for Early Termination of Probation – Blake Jonathan Splan, RVT,
               Registration No. 12833
21. Recess Open Session 


22. Convene Closed Session
Pursuant to Government Code Section 11126(e)(1) and (2)(A), the Board Will Meet in Closed Session
       to Confer and Receive Advice From Legal Counsel Regarding the Following Matter: 
San Francisco
       Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, et al. v. Jessica Sieferman
, United States District Court,
       Case No. 2:21-cv-00786-TLN-KJN
24. Pursuant to Government Code Section 11126(c)(3), the Board Will Meet in Closed Session to
      Deliberate and Vote on Disciplinary Matters, Including the Above-Identified Petitions and Stipulations
       and Proposed Decisions
25. Adjourn Closed Session 


25. Reconvene Open Session
Adjournment – Meeting adjournment may not be webcast if it is the only item that occurs after
      Closed Session.



The Department of Consumer Protection proposed regulation PR2022-006 – Drug Schedule Updates 

The proposed regulation updates 21a-243-7 through 21a-243-11 to allow the 5 specific drug schedules to automatically update when federal drug schedules are updated. 

Proposed language 

Comment period ends 08/01/22 

DEA hopes to obtain a better understanding of how telepharmacy’s currently work, and what measures DEA must take to ensure that any heightened risks of diversion posed by telepharmacy practice are adequately addressed in our federal regulations.

DEA seeks to work collaboratively with industry, states, and other stakeholders, and would greatly appreciate your input in submitting comments to the Federal Register. If you have any further questions, please contact Scott A. Brinks or Heather Achbach, Regulatory Drafting and Policy Support Section, Diversion Control Division (DPW) at DPW@dea.gov.


Occupational Licensing

DE HB404: Fresh Start Act – The Delaware Fair Chance Licensing Act provides that it is the policy of this State to allow entry to professions and occupations with licensing requirements for individuals with a criminal history to the maximum extent consistent with public safety. To that end, the bill identifies certain kinds of criminal history elements that should not be considered by licensing boards: charges that are not pending and did not lead to a conviction; juvenile records; records that have been expunged, sealed, or pardoned; and convictions that are more than 10 years old. An exception is allowed to the 10-year rule to preserve existing prohibitions involving sex offense convictions. The Act also identifies factors a licensing authority should consider in determining whether a criminal history record would prohibit licensure, or whether a waiver should be granted. 


Veterinary – Vaccinations

DE SB228 This bill was drafted incorrectly. Ferrets and cats were already required to be vaccinated. They amended it to allow vet techs to administer the vaccine under indirect supervision to shelter dogs and cats. No other changes.  



Veterinary – Licensing

DC B24-0207 changes licensure qualification by removing “an offense that is directly related to the practice of veterinary medicine, pursuant to a determination made under section 514(f)(2).” and inserting the phrase “an offense that is related to the occupation for which the license is sought, including an offense for animal cruelty.” in its place. 

DC Academy Seminars beginning on September 1, 2022, will be in person at the Elks Lodge in Fairfax, VA, and simulcast via our WebEx platform. 

We will no longer be convening at remote viewing sites. Individual members will be able to receive CE credit by participating in our seminars at the Elks Lodge or via the simulcast, on the day they are scheduled and will have access to the proceedings for review purposes only after the seminar takes place. 



The PERMAH Well-being Survey gives FVMA members a new wellness benefit 

One of the most significant parts of our efforts is ensuring we take care of our veterinary professionals with the same effort you employ to take care of our animals. 

As a new, limited-time addition to your well-being benefits as an FVMA member, we’ve partnered with the PERMAH Workplace Survey, an evidence-based tool to make it easy to figure out how you’re feeling and functioning lately at work. It will help you check in on how you, your workplace team, the workplace itself, and the FVMA are doing by providing detailed insight into your own wellness. 

The results will also help us at the FVMA make the most effective well-being resources available based on your responses. These results will help veterinary professionals both in Florida and nationally. 

This survey will take you less than five minutes to complete. Your results are strictly confidential. No one in the organization will be able to identify your answers. Best of all there is no such thing as a perfect score – just the scores that work best for you. 

The survey is open until August 10, 2022, and all you need to do is to click the link below to get started, create your username and password, and in a few simple steps, you’ll complete the survey, and be able to see and make sense of your results immediately. 


Once you’ve completed the survey, you will receive a personal well-being report, where you will have the option to delve deeper and develop a personal well-being plan. 

Reminder: the survey closes on August 10. 

This post was written by FVMA Communications. 


The Gulf-Atlantic Veterinary Conference (TGAVC 2022) 

JW Marriott Miami Turnberry  
Resort & Spa 
Sep. 22-25, 2022 

TGAVC offers a cutting-edge national veterinary conference experience to attendees from across the United States and around the world, providing continuing education to every member of the veterinary team in beautiful resort settings along the Gulf and Atlantic Coast States at an affordable price 

Learn More »Exhibit with Us »Book Your Room »  

RESCHEDULED: FAEP Ocala Equine Conference  

Hilton Ocala 
3600 SW 36th Ave, Ocala, FL 34474 
Jul 22-24, 2022 

Learn More »Register Today » 



The Idaho Legislature is now in the interim between legislative sessions. Working out of their homes and businesses rather than the Capitol Building, legislators will be meeting with constituents and participating in interim committees and task forces in preparation for the 2023 legislative session which will convene on January 9. 

Adoption of temporary rule: 

24-3801-2200F – Rules of the State of Idaho Board of Veterinary Medicine — Notice of Omnibus Rulemaking (Fee Rule) – Adoption of Temporary Rule 

DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY: The following is the required finding and concise statement of its supporting reasons for adopting a temporary rule:  

This temporary rulemaking adopts and republishes the following existing rule chapter previously submitted to and reviewed by the Idaho Legislature under IDAPA 24, rules of the Division of Occupational and Professional Licenses / Board of Veterinary Medicine:  

IDAPA 24.38  

  • 24.38.01, Rules of the State of Idaho Board of Veterinary Medicine.

TEMPORARY RULE JUSTIFICATION: Pursuant to Sections 67-5226(1)(a-c) and 67-5226(2), Idaho Code, the Governor has found that temporary adoption of the rule is appropriate for the following reasons:  

This temporary rule is necessary to protect the public health, safety, and welfare of the citizens of Idaho and confer a benefit on its citizens. The temporary rule chapter implements the duly enacted laws of the state of Idaho, provides citizens with the detailed rules and standards for complying with those laws, and assist in the orderly execution and enforcement of those laws. The expiration of this rule chapter without due consideration and processes would undermine the public health, safety, and welfare of the citizens of Idaho and deprive them of the benefit intended by the rule.  

FEE SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 67-5226(2), the Governor has found that the fee(s) or charge(s) imposed through this rulemaking is justified and necessary to avoid immediate danger and the fees are described herein:  

The fees or charges, authorized in the sections of Idaho Code referenced below, are part of the agency’s 2023 budget that relies upon the existence of these fees or charges to meet the state’s obligations and provide necessary state services. Failing to reauthorize this temporary rule would create immediate danger to the state budget, immediate danger to necessary state functions and services, and immediate danger of a violation of Idaho’s constitutional requirement that it balance its budget.  

24.38.01, Rules of the State of Idaho Board of Veterinary Medicine – Fees are established in accordance with Sections 54-2105, 54-2107, and 54-2112, Idaho Code, as follows:



Active Renewal  

Inactive Renewal  

Late/ Reinstatement  

Inactive to Active Fee  

Veterinary License  






Certified Veterinary Technician  









Active Renewal  

Inactive Renewal  

Late/ Reinstatement  

Inactive to Active Fee  

Certified Euthanasia Agency  






Certified Euthanasia Technician  






Duplicate Wall License/Certificate $25  
Veterinary License Verification $20  


Communicating The Cost of Care 

Our ability to help pets stay healthy depends on our skills in effectively partnering with clients. This relationship depends on thoughtful communication between the client and the veterinary team members. What does successful communication look like? We will explore why talking to clients about money is uncomfortable and introduce skills that will help veterinary team members to talk with clients more comfortably, and successfully, about the cost of care. Barriers to Cost of Care Conversations 

Why is it so difficult to talk to clients about money? Commonly cited reasons that veterinary teams don’t have proactive cost of care conversations with clients are a lack of time, the fear that they will be seen as ‘just in it for the money, or the belief that it isn’t their job. A recent survey¹ of over 3,000 human physicians found commonalities with veterinarians when it comes to discussing the cost of care with their human patients. In reality, the aversion to having financial discussions, either for current or future care, with veterinary clients is more complex and uncomfortable. Having worked in examination rooms for over 30 years, serving as a resource for my teams as a senior veterinarian and owner, I believe there are four main reasons why veterinary professionals shy away from these conversations: 

1. Fear: This can encompass many different forms – fear of emotional reactions from clients, of declined recommendations, and fear of damaging the relationship you have with the client. It can also be fear of reprisal, such as in social media postings. 

2. Guilt: Most of us who work in veterinary hospitals do so either to help animals, their humans, or both. When money is introduced into the conversation, we feel badly when clients decline recommendations, assuming it is because they can’t afford the proposed treatments. Because many veterinary staff are compensated as hourly employees, they might project their own feelings about money into the situation. It is hard for a veterinary team member to make recommendations that they might not be able to afford if it was their pet. Finally, veterinarians report feeling that their skills and expertise were undervalued during difficult financial conversations². 

3. Assumption: Perceptions, and Judgments: One example of this would be prejudging the ability of a client to afford care and allowing that to influence what recommendations are offered to the client. Another example would be the unease experienced by the veterinary team member that they are somehow judging the suitability of a pet owner to own the pet, based on their ability to pay. This is heightened during emotionally charged situations like emergencies, or when costly estimates are presented to the 
pet owner. 

4. Negative Connotations of Money: Animal health care team members might worry that the client perceives the discussion of money as a switch from doing what is best for the patient to what would financially benefit the veterinary professional. This might be more of a concern in hospitals that pay their veterinarians on production as opposed to salary, where their livelihood directly correlates with accepted diagnostics or treatments. There are many reasons why having cost-of-care conversations are beneficial to the relationship between the veterinary team and the client. From research² performed in human medicine, clients prefer physicians who include cost information to those who do not, viewing them in a more positive light. They were seen as having the patient’s best interests in mind, as more caring and trustworthy. These findings are highly relevant, as it is the human at the other end of the leash that makes treatment decisions for the pet. Another study³ found that clients prefer to have the cost of veterinary care discussed early during a visit. They have also stated that they expect that “care considerations come before cost considerations” when clinical recommendations are presented. The findings of this study indicate that financial discussions should include “explaining the costs in the context of the pet’s health and well-being, taking into consideration the unique beliefs and values of individual clients.” In a  recent study⁴  evaluating clients’ attitudes toward veterinary hospitals, animal healthcare teams and veterinary hospitals that proactively educated clients about pet insurance as a possible financial solution to their pet’s future healthcare costs earned a higher client satisfaction level. Pet owners reported statistically significant increases in positive feelings about the level to which their veterinary staff cared for them and satisfaction with the care provided by their veterinary hospital. 

Overcoming Cost of Care Conversation Barriers Perspective: When communicating with others, it is essential to recognize the role that perception plays in our interactions. We must understand our own points of view, realizing that the person with whom we are communicating also has their own perceptions. During a successful interaction, both individuals attempt to understand the viewpoints (perspectives) of each other, seeking common ground. As communication skills are discussed below, the reader should remember how perception can influence interactions. 

Transactional Versus Relational Interactions: A transactional interaction is devoid of a personal connection and occurs when the person involved is merely going through the necessary motions to complete the encounter. It is characterized by a client asking a question and receiving a reply that doesn’t acknowledge the client as an individual. There is no attempt to establish common ground and typically no attempt to identify the client’s needs, beyond a superficial level. Clients feel underwhelmed, unimpressed, and disregarded. A relational interaction is built on the team member building rapport with the client. The needs of the client are identified by eliciting their perspective. The client feels that the team member, and by extension the hospital, truly cares about them and their pet. They feel validated in their decision to interact with the hospital, and they experience a sense of connection, which is a critical component in bonding clients to your hospital. Building a relational interaction requires that both people, the veterinary team member, and the client, be engaged in actively communicating with each other. When veterinary team members acknowledge the individuality of the pet and client by using their names, the process of relationship building begins. It is further enhanced when open-ended questions are used to gather information. An open-ended question is one that cannot be answered by a yes or no but requires dialog to fully respond to the query. Typically, these questions start with words like “When”, “How”, “What” and phrases such as “Tell me more” and “Anything else?” 

Other communication skills that can foster relational interactions are using signposting and summaries. Signposting is a technique that is used to communicate a future action to a client, such as explaining the process of an office visit: 
“Matt, new puppies are exciting, but a lot of work. Our job is to help you help him become the best dog he can be. To do this, we believe in educating our clients so that they can make the best decisions for their pets. Our first puppy visits are about 40 minutes long. During this visit, we will talk to you about house-training, nutrition, and puppy behavior. Our doctor will perform a thorough physical examination and discuss the findings with you. We will also explain to you what the first year of Churchill’s life looks like from a medical perspective. How does that sound?” 
Summaries are used to clarify information and to further elicit a client’s perspective. They are best used when they are prefaced by an explanation of why the veterinary team member is using the technique, followed by a summary of pertinent facts gathered from the conversation. An example would be: 
“I want to be sure that I have fully understood your concerns, Matt. You told me that you purchased Churchill from a breeder and brought him home two days ago. Shortly after he came home, he began to have diarrhea. He is still eating, and active and has not had any vomiting. Anything else?”  

Price of Care Versus the Cost of Care: There is a distinct difference between the “Price of Care” and the “Cost of Care”, which directly relates to how we discuss recommendations with our veterinary clients. The ‘price of care’ is the transaction of a fee for a service. The ‘cost of care’ considers the impact of a declined recommendation or treatment to the health and well-being of the animal. It is best conveyed to clients by describing the recommendations in terms of the benefit to the pet and the pet owner. How the cost of care is discussed matters. Veterinarians often discuss care in terms of the quantifiable deliverables, such as the additional time, training, staffing, or equipment that the delivery of the service will require. In a study done by Coe3, clients expressed their need to understand how the service or diagnostic would help their pet, both in short-term benefits and long-term gains. As found in another study, veterinarians that thoroughly communicated the value of the service and the benefits to the pet increased adherence rates by as much as 40%. Preparing Clients for Their Pet’s Lifetime Cost of Care: Client economic limitations create stressors for the animal health care team and clients, resulting in a lack of care for pets. In some situations, these financial hurdles can be overcome by having proactive conversations with clients regarding strategies to help provide care for their pets. 

There are three key times to have these conversations with clients: 

Early during Pet Ownership: Talk about the lifetime cost of care early in the course of pet ownership. These do not need to be in-depth, lengthy conversations. At a puppy or kitten visit, the conversation would sound like: “Matt, congratulations again on Churchill. He is so handsome! As you are a new puppy owner, we think it is important to set some expectations around the lifetime cost of care for Churchill.  This first year will be a little more expensive because you will have a series of puppy visits 
for examinations and vaccinations, as well as the cost of Churchill’s surgery to neuter him. As Churchill reaches adulthood, costs level out, then increase again as he becomes a senior dog and needs more frequent visits. As he reaches each of these stages, we will discuss what to expect.” 

At the End of Each Visit: Clearly communicate about the next steps in health care for the pet. At the end of each visit, take time to explain to when their pet’s next visit should occur and what services will be due at that time. Schedule the examination prior to the client leaving the hospital. This conversation would sound like:  “Matt, I can’t believe that Churchill is 6 years old! It is time that we begin to see him twice yearly. By performing semi-annual examinations and diagnostics, we can be proactive and detect health problems early. We have found that this approach helps our patients live longer, better quality lives. Because this is important for Churchill’s health, we will ask you to schedule a placeholder appointment before you leave today.What questions do you have for me?” 

When Discussing Wellness Plans: Take the time to educate clients about the benefits of wellness plans and pet insurance: 
“Matt, we recognize that pet ownership can be expensive. Many of our clients have been helped by preemptively planning for these costs. At XYZ Veterinary Hospital, we offer a wellness plan that includes all the preventive care services Churchillwill need to help keep him healthy. Because we can’t predict the cost of illness and accidents, we also recommend pet insurance. We never want the cost of care to be a barrier to caring for Churchill. It pays to plan ahead.”  


In this article, we examined why we find money so hard to talk about in the veterinary care setting, and why clients need us to have these conversations with them, as their trusted partner in pet care. We explored how understanding the client’s perspective can help us to be more effective communicators. We learned how to leverage the power of a relational interaction and how to better communicate in the examination room. Finally, we learned the value of having proactive cost-of-care conversations that include education about pet health insurance. By embracing these business practices, we can help to overcome perceived client economic limitations and provide tangible tools to help clients plan for the cost of care over the lifetime of their pet, thus honoring and preserving the human-animal bond. 

Reprinted with permission – Dr. Wendy Hauser 

¹Cost of Care Conversations: Practice Briefs. America’s Essential Hospitals Website. 
Accessed March 30, 2020 
²Brick DJ, Scherr KA, Ubel PA. The Impact of Cost Conversations on the Patient-Physician 
Relationship. Health Communication, 2019 Jan; 34(1):65-73 
³Coe JB, Adams CL, Bonnett BN. A focus group study of veterinarians’ and pet owners’ perceptions of the monetary aspects of veterinary care. JAVMA, Vol 231, No. 10, November 15, 2007. Pgs. 1510-1518 
⁴Hauser W, Schoen K, Kogan L. How Does Proactively Educating Client about Pet Health Insurance Impact Veterinary Teams and Clients? Unpublished data 
5Lue TW, Pantenburg DP, Crawford PM. Impact of the owner-pet and client-veterinarian bond on the care that pets receive. JAVMA, Vol 232, No. 4, February 15, 2008. Pgs. 531-540. 



Adopted and Filed Emergency 

Rulemaking related to veterinarian/client/patient relationships 

The Board of Veterinary Medicine hereby amends Chapter 1, “Description of Organization and Definitions,” and Chapter 12, “Standards of Practice,” Iowa Administrative Code. 

Legal Authority for Rule Making 
This rule-making is adopted under the authority provided in Iowa Code section 169.5. 

State or Federal Law Implemented 
This rule-making implements, in whole or in part, Iowa Code section 169.5. 

Purpose and Summary 
Some of the requirements for a veterinarian/client/patient relationship (VCPR), including a veterinarian’s responsibilities in an emergency setting, were previously set forth in the American Veterinary Medical Association’s document, referenced in the rules, titled Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics. The Board removed references to the document and adopted its own ethics rules in a separate rulemaking, ARC 6212C, IAB 2/23/22, which became effective on March 30, 2022. The rule requires a VCPR before a veterinarian may provide medical care or prescribe medications to a patient. 

The Board adopted additional amendments to the VCPR requirements on December 30, 2021, in ARC 6171C, IAB 2/9/22, which require a physical examination of the patient or visits to the premises within the past 12 months to establish a VCPR. The Administrative Rules Review Committee (ARRC), at its March 7, 2022, meeting, delayed the effective date of that rule-making by 70 days from April 1, 2022, to June 10, 2022. 

This rule-making addresses public comments made during the previous two rule-makings and at Board meetings. Currently, a VCPR is established when three criteria are met. This rule-making clarifies and addresses the responsibilities of veterinarians who provide services in an emergency setting, which were previously explained in the rule-referenced document. This rule-making defines “emergency,” “physical examination,” and “premises.” It also clarifies and revises two of the criteria to allow a VCPR for groups of animals, and allows a licensed veterinarian with a VCPR to designate another licensed veterinarian to consult or provide backup care. This rulemaking establishes an applicability date to avoid retroactive application of the 12-month requirement as required in ARC 6171C. 

Reason for Adoption of Rule Making Without 

Prior Notice and Opportunity for Public Participation 
Pursuant to Iowa Code section 17A.4(3), the Board finds that notice and public participation are unnecessary or impractical because emergency adoption was approved by the Administrative Rules Review Committee. 

In compliance with Iowa Code section 17A.4(3)“a” the Administrative Rules Review Committee at its June 14, 2022, meeting reviewed the Board’s determination and this rulemaking and approved the emergency adoption. 

Reason for Waiver of Normal Effective Date 
Pursuant to Iowa Code section 17A.5(2)“b”(1)(c), the Board also finds that the normal effective date of this rulemaking, 35 days after publication, should be waived and the rulemaking made effective on June 14, 2022, because the ARRC approved its emergency adoption to allow licensed veterinarians to provide emergency care for their patients without having a VCPR. These amendments protect public health against the transmission of zoonotic diseases. These amendments became effective on June 14, 2022, after approval by the Administrative Rules Review Committee to provide one consistent rule for establishing a VCPR and to allow licensed veterinarians to utilize other licensed veterinarians in protecting public health and providing the best possible care for their patients. 

Adoption of Rule Making 
This rule-making was adopted by the Board on May 26, 2022. 

Concurrent Publication of Notice of Intended Action 
In addition to its adoption on an emergency basis, this rule-making has been initiated through the normal rule-making process and is published herein under Notice of Intended Action as ARC 6403C to allow for public comment. 

Fiscal Impact 
This rule-making has no fiscal impact to the State of Iowa. 

Jobs Impact 
After analysis and review of this rule-making, no impact on jobs has been found. 

Any person who believes that the application of the discretionary provisions of this rulemaking would result in hardship or injustice to that person may petition the Board for a waiver of the discretionary provisions, if any, pursuant to 811—Chapter 14. 

Review by Administrative Rules Review Committee 
The Administrative Rules Review Committee, a bipartisan legislative committee which oversees rule-making by executive branch agencies, may, on its own motion or on written request by any individual or group, review this rule-making at its regular monthly meeting or at a special meeting. The Committee’s meetings are open to the public, and interested persons may be heard as provided in Iowa Code section 17A.8(6). 

Effective Date 

This rule-making became effective on June 14, 2022. 

The following rule-making actions are adopted: 

Item 1. Amend rule 811—1.4(17A,169), introductory paragraph, as follows: 

811—1.4(17A,169) Definitions. As used in these the rules of the board, unless the context otherwise requires: 

Item 2. Adopt the following new definitions of “Emergency,” “Physical examination” and “Premises” in rule 811—1.4(17A,169): 

“Emergency” means that an animal has been placed in a life-threatening condition and immediate treatment is necessary to sustain life or that death is imminent, and action is necessary to relieve extreme pain or suffering. 

“Physical examination” means a veterinarian is physically proximate, hands-on to the patient, and subjectively and objectively evaluates the patient’s health status through the use of observation, auscultation, palpation, percussion or manipulations, or, for a group of patients, the veterinarian is physically proximate to the group of patients and has subjectively and objectively assessed a representative sample of the patients. 

“Premises” means the land, buildings, enclosures, and facilities operated or owned by the client where the patient or representative patients are housed, kept, located, or grazed. 

Item 3. Amend rule 811—12.1(169) as follows: 

811—12.1(169) Veterinarian/client/patient relationships. 

12.1(1) The board shall determine, on a case-by-case basis, if a valid veterinarian/client/patient relationship exists. This relationship shall be deemed to exist when all of the following criteria have been met: 

  1. The licensed veterinarian has assumed the responsibility for making medical judgments regarding the health of the patient and the need for medical treatment, and the client has agreed to follow the instructions of the licensed veterinarian;
  2. The licensed veterinarian has sufficient knowledge of the patient to initiate at least a general or preliminary diagnosis of the medical condition of the patient. Sufficient knowledge means that the licensed veterinarian has recently seen or is personally acquainted with the keeping and care of the patient by virtue of a physical examination of the patient within the past 12 months or a visit to the premises where the patient is kept within the past 12 months; and any of the following:

(1) A physical examination of the patient within the past 12 months; 

(2) A professional visit within the past 12 months to the premises where the patient is kept or representative patients are kept; or 

(3) The licensed veterinarian has been designated by a licensed veterinarian, who has a prior veterinarian/client/patient relationship, to provide reasonable and appropriate medical care. The veterinarian making the designation shall have met the requirements of either subparagraph 12.1(1)“b”(1) or 12.1(1)“b”(2) and the designated veterinarian must have access to the patient’s medical records. 

The 12-month time period in paragraph 12.1(1)“b” shall not apply until June 14, 2023. 

  1. The licensed veterinarian is readily available or provides for follow-up care in case of adverse reactions or failure of the regimen of therapy, or, if unavailable, has designated another available licensed veterinarian who has access to the patient’s records to provide reasonable and appropriate medical care.

12.1(2) A valid veterinarian/client/patient relationship cannot be established by contact solely based on a telephonic or electronic communication. 

12.1(3) In the absence of a veterinarian/client/patient relationship: 

  1. Any advice which is provided through electronic means must be general and not specific to a particular animal or its diagnosis or treatment.
  2. Advice and recommendations may be provided via veterinary telephonic or electronic communication in an emergency, but only until the animal can be examined in person by a licensed veterinarian.

12.1(3) 12.1(4) Both the licensed veterinarian and the client have the right to establish or decline a valid veterinarian/client/patient relationship. Once the licensed veterinarian and the client have agreed and entered into a relationship, and the licensed veterinarian has begun patient care, the licensed veterinarian may not neglect the patient and must continue to provide professional services related to the patient’s injury or illness within the previously agreed limits. As subsequent needs and costs for patient care are identified, the licensed veterinarian and the client must confer and reach an agreement on the continued care and responsibility for fees. If the informed client declines future care or declines to assume responsibility for the fees, the relationship may be terminated by either party. 

12.1(4) 12.1(5) If no ongoing medical condition exists, a licensed veterinarian may terminate a valid veterinarian/client/patient relationship by notifying the client that the licensed veterinarian no longer wishes to serve that patient and client. However, if an ongoing medical or surgical condition exists, the patient should be referred to another licensed veterinarian for diagnosis, care, and treatment and the former attending licensed veterinarian should continue to provide care as needed during the transition. 

12.1(5) 12.1(6) Concerns about licensed veterinarian or staff safety may result in immediate termination of the veterinarian/client/patient relationship. 

12.1(7) In emergencies, a veterinarian has an ethical responsibility to provide essential services for an animal when necessary to save the animal’s life or relieve extreme suffering, subsequent to a client agreement (or until such agreement can be obtained when a client is not present or cannot be reached). Such emergency care may be limited to relieve extreme pain or suffering, or to stabilization of the patient for transport to another source of animal care or euthanasia when deemed necessary by the veterinarian. When a veterinarian cannot be available to provide services, the veterinarian should provide readily accessible information to assist a client in obtaining emergency services, consistent with the needs of the locality. In an emergency, if a veterinarian does not have the expertise or the necessary equipment and facilities to adequately diagnose or treat a patient, the veterinarian should advise the client that more qualified or specialized services are available elsewhere and offer to expedite referral to those services. 

12.1(8) A licensed veterinarian who in good faith engages in the practice of veterinary medicine by rendering or attempting to render emergency or urgent care to a patient when a client cannot be identified, and a veterinarian/client/patient relationship is not established, shall not be subject to discipline based solely on the veterinarian’s inability to establish a veterinarian/client/patient relationship. 

[Filed Emergency 5/27/22, effective 6/14/22] 

[Published 7/13/22] 

Editor’s Note: For replacement pages for IAC, see IAC Supplement 7/13/22. 

ARC 6403C Proposing rule making related to veterinarian/client/patient relationships and providing an opportunity for public comment  

Purpose and Summary  

Some of the requirements for a veterinarian/client/patient relationship (VCPR), including a veterinarian’s responsibilities in an emergency setting, were previously set forth in the American Veterinary Medical Association’s document, referenced in the rules, titled Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics. The Board removed references to the document and adopted its own ethics rules in a separate rulemaking, ARC 6212C, IAB 2/23/22, which became effective on March 30, 2022. The rule requires a VCPR before a veterinarian may provide medical care or prescribe medications to a patient.  

The Board adopted additional amendments to the VCPR requirements on December 30, 2021, in ARC 6171C, IAB 2/9/22, which require a physical examination of the patient or visits to the premises within the past 12 months to establish a VCPR. The Administrative Rules Review Committee (ARRC), at its March 7, 2022, meeting, delayed the effective date of that rule-making by 70 days from April 1, 2022, to June 10, 2022.  

This rule-making addresses public comments made during these previous two rule-makings and at Board meetings. Currently, a VCPR is established when three criteria are met. This rule-making clarifies and addresses the responsibilities of veterinarians who provide services in an emergency setting, which were previously explained in the rule-referenced document. This rule-making defines “emergency,” “physical examination,” and “premises.” It also clarifies and revises two of the criteria to allow a VCPR for groups of animals and allows a licensed veterinarian with a VCPR to designate another licensed veterinarian to consult or provide backup care. This rulemaking establishes an applicability date to avoid retroactive application of the 12-month requirement as required in ARC 6171C.  

Public Comment  

Any interested person may submit written comments concerning this proposed rule-making. Written comments in response to this rule-making must be received by the Board no later than 4:30 p.m. on August 2, 2022. Comments should be directed to:  

Colin Tadlock 
Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship Wallace State Office Building 
502 East 9th Street 
Des Moines, Iowa 50319 
Phone: 515.281.7808 
Email: colin.tadlock@iowaagriculture.gov  

Public Hearing  

No public hearing is scheduled at this time. As provided in Iowa Code section 17A.4(1)“b,” an oral presentation regarding this rule making may be demanded by 25 interested persons, a governmental subdivision, the Administrative Rules Review Committee, an agency, or an association having 25 or more members.  

Review by Administrative Rules Review Committee  

The Administrative Rules Review Committee, a bipartisan legislative committee which oversees rule-making by executive branch agencies, may, on its own motion or on written request by any individual or group, review this rule-making at its regular monthly meeting or at a special meeting. The Committee’s meetings are open to the public, and interested persons may be heard as provided in Iowa Code section 17A.8(6).  

Emergency Rule Making Adopted by Reference  

This proposed rulemaking is also published herein as an Adopted and Filed Emergency rulemaking (see ARC 6397C, IAB 7/13/22). The purpose of this Notice of Intended Action is to solicit public comment on that emergency rulemaking, whose subject matter is hereby adopted by reference.



Regulatory Proposals/Discussions 

2022-D  ~  Preceptorship Requirements for DVM Licensure – Discussion on preceptorship requirements for applicants for DVM Licensure. 

  • 08-04-2022     Current statutes and rules regarding preceptorship requirement for DVM Licensure to be discussed by Board. [Source: Meeting Agenda – 08-04-22] 


At their May 12th meeting, the Board discussed proposed changes to the Board’s regulations in sections 2.00, 8.00, and 9.00. The Board heard public comment regarding the proposed definition of “Veterinary Assistant” in section 2.00 and discussed whether referring to “clinical support staff” instead may encompass everyone working in a veterinary facility rather than only those assisting the veterinarian. Dr. Kube reminded the group that the phrase would be defined in the regulations. The Board discussed an edit to the draft section 8.00 regulations as well as changes to the section 9.00 regulations on continuing education. The Board discussed allowing licensees to obtain credit for only the first instance of the instruction or presentation of a workshop or seminar; allowing participants in a residency to obtain credit for all required CE credits, and requiring specialists to take CE credits in their specialty. The Board will continue this discussion in future meetings.  


Companion – Licenses​

MI HB5588 removes the requirement that anyone issuing a dog license provides information on the statewide tattoo registry for dogs, maintained by the department of agriculture. 


Minnesota poultry exhibition ban released 

The Minnesota Board of Animal Health releases its temporary poultry exhibition ban today, Friday, July 1. Animal health officials first enacted the ban in April and extended it twice to reduce the potential risks of spreading Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI). The ban included all poultry swaps, fairs, exhibitions, and other events where live poultry and susceptible birds were brought together and then dispersed. 

“We feel HPAI cases have slowed enough to allow poultry events to resume in Minnesota,” said Board of Animal Health Interim State Veterinarian, Dr. Linda Glaser. “We appreciate the patience and cooperation from everyone affected as we temporarily restricted these events to address the HPAI outbreak in our state.” 

While there have been no new HPAI detections in Minnesota’s domestic poultry for the past month, biosecurity is still the most effective precaution poultry owners can follow to protect their flock. There are still occasional detections of HPAI in wild birds, which means the virus is still in the environment and poses a risk to bird owners. The USDA posts the latest reports of wild and domestic HPAI cases on its website. 

Bird owners preparing for their local county fair should take some specific biosecurity precautions before and after the fair. Precautions include handwashing, reporting sick birds to the fair veterinarian, and keeping birds isolated from the rest of your flock when returning home. Additional measures can be reviewed on the Board’s “Biosecurity for Exhibitors” flyer. 

This spring’s 2022 H5N1 HPAI outbreak in Minnesota posed a high risk to poultry but a low risk to the public. There is no food safety concern for consumers. 

Follow the latest information on HPAI in Minnesota, as well as resources for poultry owners on the Board’s website. Flock owners should continue to practice good biosecurity around their birds and report any suspicious illness to their veterinarian. 


At their July 1, 2022 meeting, the Montana Board of Veterinary Medicine motioned to proceed with the final adoption of MAR 24.225.42 as discussed and directed staff to file the final adoption notice with the Secretary of State. The motion was seconded and carried.  

Recorded audio of the discussion may be found here. 


All changes proposed at the 06/30/22 Public Hearing to Adopt Regulations R074-21 were approved.  

Amendment/Repeal/Adoption of Language to NAC 638 includes:  

  • Removal of notary requirement from applications  
  • Definition of physical examination  
  • Biennial renewals and proportional adjustments to continuing education and renewal fees.  
  • Certain terms from ‘practice of veterinary medicine’  


Section 1 of this regulation interprets the term “physical examination.” 
Section 2 of this regulation removes the requirements established in regulation regarding a ‘veterinarian-client-patient-relationship’ as it is now defined in statute. 
Sections 5-9, 11-13 of this regulation removes the requirement for notarization of documents concurrent with AB200. 
Section 8, 10, 12 of this regulation establishes a biennial registration period for each permit and certificate concurrent with AB200. 
Section 3-4 of this regulation adjusts the amount of existing fees in conformity with the biennial renewal period of registrations issued with the Board. The section adjusts fees such that the fee is reduced by half if collected in the 12 months preceding the expiration of the certificate. 
Section 14 of this regulation repeals conduct that is not included in the term ‘practice of veterinary medicine’.  

New Hampshire

State Board

NH SB313 This bill clarifies that the executive director of the office of professional licensure and certification has the authority to establish fees on behalf of the boards, commissions, and councils administered by the office of professional licensure and certification. 

Final Proposal for Committee Meeting 7/21/22 Notice: 2022-36 

Rule no. Vet 300 – Registration of Licensing Requirements 

Chapter Vet 300 specifies registration or licensing requirements to practice veterinary medicine.  

Proposed Vet 301.01 describes the application procedures and is being adopted again after having been previously effective 1/28/20 with changes as follows: 

     – Update the application for veterinary license form;
     – Clarify the procedures for submission and review of the form and supporting documents; and 
     – Describe the issuance of the license.  

Proposed Vet 302 describes the qualification for each applicant for licensure and is being adopted again after having been previously effective 8/1/19 and expired on 1/28/20 to include PAVE certification or other certification by a PAVE-approved program as a veterinary school accrediting body and clarify the description of what is included in “good professional character”.  

Proposed Vet 303 describes examination and is being adopted again after having been previously effective 8/1/19 and expired on 1/28/20 to clarify the jurisprudence examination and require that it be given in Concord NH or by mail to qualified applicants.  

Proposed Vet 304 describes reciprocity and is being adopted again after having been previously effective 8/1/19 and expired on 1/28/20 to clarify the documents required to be submitted with the application for licensure form.  

Proposed Vet 305 describes a temporary permit and is being adopted again after having been previously effective 8/1/19 and expired on 1/28/20 with changes as follows to: 
Remove definitions;
     – Insert a description of who the temporary permit shall be granted to; 
     – Amend the obligations of temporary permit holder by clarifying the requirements that must be met
       and include taking and passing the NH jurisprudence examination;

Insert a description of the temporary permit; and  
     – Insert the approval or denial of the permit process.  

Proposed Vet 306 describes the fees to be assessed and is being adopted again after having been previously effective 8/1/19 and expired on 1/28/20 to remove those fees set in other rule by the Office of Professional Licensure and Certification (OPLC) and to modify the remaining fees as agreed upon with OPLC. Fees are being modified or added as follows:      
The veterinarian application fee is being reduced from $175.00 to $155.00;  
The license renewal fee is being increased from $150.00 to $155.00;  
The $200.00 annual license renewal fee for licenses received after December 31st is being removed;  
There is a reinstatement fee of $155.00 being established;  
There is a $20.00 fee for the physician health program being established; and  
There are various other fees being removed that have been established in Plc 1001.  


2022-102 Rule 700 -Veterinary Medical Records 

The intended action is to adopt Vet 700 regarding Veterinary medical records which had expired on January 28, 2020. The purpose of these rules is to codify in rule the responsibility of a veterinarian in the course of practice for making and keeping medical records and the transfer of records from one practice, shelter, or facility to another.  

Adopt Vet 700, previously effective 8/1/19 (Document #12842, Interim), and expired 1/28/20 Full text 

Submissions due 07/20/2022 – Public hearing 07/20/2022


2022-103 Rule 1000 – Prescription Drug Monitoring Program – Opioid Management  

The proposed rules being adopted are to describe the prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) and opioid management and prescribing of opioids for pain by veterinarians. The rule includes patient history and physical examination, risk assessment to determine if opioids are medically appropriate, and establishment and documentation of a treatment plan.  

Requires vets to query PMP, document informed consent of side effects, disposing of, etc., opioids can only be prescribed for 14 days, and requires a written treatment plan if prescribing opioids for more than 90 days within any 6-month period.  

Full Text 

Submissions due 07/20/2022 – Public hearing 07/20/2022 

New Jersey

Evenings with Experts Webinar: Update on Opioids 2022: Opioid-less: Less to Use, Using Less 

July 20, 2022 

Get the Details 

Evenings with Experts Webinar: Balanced Anesthesia and Pain Management 

August 17, 2022 

Get the Details 


New York

Veterinary – Devocalization

NY A106548 prohibits devocalization except when medically necessary and by a licensed veterinarian. 

Buoy’s Law- Keep a Record When You Disclose Drug Side-Effects 

For many years NYSVMS has opposed a NY State Bill known as Buoy’s Law that relates to the disclosure of the side effects of animal medications. 

The concern we have about bills that we oppose each session, year after year, is that eventually, something unusual might happen that leads to the bill passing. For example, after years of successfully opposing the cat declawing ban, there were some special circumstances during the 2019 session that made it easier for the bill to be passed. 

Sometimes there is an option where instead of opposing a bill, we get the opportunity to work with the sponsors on the language so that they can get a bill passed that it is important to them, but with language that is acceptable to veterinarians. This can often be better than being left out of the conversation entirely so that if a bill does make it through the result is very damaging. 

As a result of NYSVMS negotiations, the version of Buoy’s Law that has been accepted by the NYS Legislature is very different from the bill that we were strongly opposing in prior years. The revised bill simply requires veterinarians to inform the owner about any common reasonably anticipated adverse effects associated with the medication, which is consistent with current best practice. (This replaces the earlier language that required a veterinarian to provide a written description of all the “potential risks and side-effects”.) 

The bill has not yet been signed by the Governor. Once it is signed it will not become law for another 180 days. 

The full text of the bill can be found here: S1289   A4978 

We recommend that members note in the treatment record that they have advised the client of the potential risks and side effects. 

The other information that the new bill requires is very similar to the existing prescribing and dispensing requirements in the NY Pharmacy Laws: 

  • The name and the description of the drug 
  • Directions for use 
  • If available, manufacturers instructions for proper storage* 
  • If available, manufacturer precautions and relevant warnings* 

*These only apply if the manufacturer has provided information for the specific species the drug is being prescribed for. 

Like many laws – this one is broad in nature, and we are expecting regulations to be published that clarify some of the situations that are unclear. 

A similar bill was passed in California in recent years, and several vendors have products to help veterinarians go well beyond compliance. For example, our affiliate partner LifeLearn has included drug information handouts in their ClientEd product. Once the bill is closer to becoming law we will provide more information to learn about these products. 

Tim Atkinson 
Executive Director, 

North Carolina

Veterinary – Consulting & Students

NC S651 Adds to definitions: 

1) Veterinary consulting. – When any person, whose expertise the veterinarian believes would benefit the veterinarian’s patient, provides advice by any means of communication to a veterinarian at the veterinarian’s direction or request. Veterinary consulting does not constitute the practice of veterinary medicine by that act alone. Changes the “veterinary student intern” requirement of completion of 3 years in veterinary school, to completion of 2 years. Removes “Veterinary student preceptee” from definitions and any referring statute. 

Sets facility permit fee at $150 (H911). 

Veterinary – Facilities​

NC H911: Regulatory Reform Act.  
90-187.8. Discipline of licensees. 

(b) The Board may impose and collect from a licensee [or a veterinary facility permittee], a civil monetary penalty of up to five thousand dollars ($5,000) for each violation of this Article or a rule adopted under this Article.  

G.S. 90-187.8 provides the NC Veterinary Medical Board (Board) with the authority to impose and collect from “licensees” a civil penalty of up to $5,000 for each violation of the veterinary licensing Article. 

S.L. 2019-170 provided that in addition to the required veterinary license to practice veterinary medicine, no person may own a veterinary facility without having obtained a veterinary facility permit from the board. 

Section 11 would provide that the Board may impose and collect from licensees and veterinary facility permittees a civil penalty of up to $5,000 for each violation of the veterinary licensing Article. 

EFFECTIVE DATE: Except as otherwise provided, this act is effective when it becomes law



Ohio State Board of Pharmacy rule amendment proposal 

Animal Shelters – 4729:5-15-05 – Chemical capture classification. (AMEND)  
          A. Upon application of an animal shelter or county dog warden that holds a limited license issued
                under section
4729.531 of the Revised Code, the state board of pharmacy may grant a chemical
                capture classification to the limited license. The classification permits the holder to purchase,
                possess, and administer a combination of drugs for chemical capture. Unless otherwise approved
                by the board, no such classification shall authorize or permit the distribution of these drugs to
                any person other than the originating wholesale distributor of the drugs. 
To qualify for a chemical capture classification under this rule, an applicant shall appoint
                                    or employ a certified officer. 
An animal shelter or county dog warden shall comply with the initial licensure and
                                    renewal requirements set forth in rule
4729:5-2-02 of the Administrative Code. As
                                    part of this licensing process, the animal shelter or county dog warden shall provide
                                    a list of drugs, signed by the responsible person, that will be used for chemical capture.
 A certified officer may use any of the following drugs for use as part of the chemical
                                                a. Ketamine;
                                                b. Xylazine; and  
Tiletamine and zolazepam.;
                                                d. Yohimbine;
                                                e. Tolazoline; and
                                                f. Atipamezole.  

          B. All areas where drugs and devices used for chemical capture are stored shall comply
              with the security and storage requirements of rule
4729:5-15-02 of the Administrative Code
              and rule
4729:5-3-13 of the Administrative Code.  
All drugs used for chemical capture shall comply with the following:  
Recordkeeping requirements of rule 4729:5-15-03 of the Administrative Code; and
                                2. Drug disposal requirements of rule
4729:5-15-02 of the Administrative Code.  
           D. The animal shelter or dog warden shall develop and implement a drug dosing protocol for all
                drugs and equipment used in chemical capture.
                                1. The protocol shall be reviewed and signed by a veterinarian licensed under
                                    Chapter 4741. of the Revised Code.
The protocol shall include the following: drug, dose, concentration, approved uses
                                    for drug delivery, approved equipment for use, circumstances for use,
                                    contraindications, any known common complications/side effects, and weight
                                    ranges with corresponding volume of drug to be administered.
A documented review of the protocol shall be conducted by a veterinarian
                                   licensed under Chapter 4741. of the Revised Code at least once every five years.
           E. All equipment used in chemical capture shall: 
Be secured to prevent unauthorized access by individuals who are not certified officers;  
Maintained and used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the
                                    protocol established in accordance with paragraph (D) of this rule.
Be disposed of in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.  
An animal shelter or dog warden with a chemical capture classification shall develop and
               implement policies and procedures that incorporate the following based upon nationally
               recognized standards for chemical capture:
Determining when chemical capture is appropriate. Such policies and procedures
                                    shall make all reasonable efforts to ensure animal safety, certified officer safety, and
                                    the safety of the public.
The care of a companion animal immediately upon capture. Certified officers
                                    engaged in chemical capture must have a written animal handling and
                                    post-capture protocol which includes: 
The procedure for removing the dart from a captured animal;  
                                                b. First aid for the animal, with particular reference to the dart wound
                                                    and potential emergencies (including: hyperthermia, hypothermia,
                                                    shock, bloat, respiratory distress, and cardiac arrest); and
Appropriate location and handling for the animal during recovery
                                                    from the capture event.
A terminal distributor of dangerous drugs with a chemical capture classification shall maintain
                records for every certified officer that has completed training in accordance section
of the Revised Code. Such documentation shall be made readily retrievable and shall be
                maintained for one year from the date the certified officer is no longer employed by or
                affiliated with the terminal distributor of dangerous drugs. 



Animal Welfare

PA SB907 establishes the Animal Welfare Board. Representation includes two from VMA, Federation of Dog Clubs (a licensed kennel operator), AKC, Humane Society, insurance, etc. 

PVMA Partners with Certified Safety Training to Provide Custom OSHA Safety Services  

Failing an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspection can result in tens of thousands of dollars in penalties. To help Members avoid costly penalties by fully complying with mandatory health and safety regulations, the Pennsylvania Veterinary Medical Association (PVMA) is pleased to partner with Certified Safety Training (CST) to introduce the PVMA OSHA Safety Program, an all-in-one solution that provides manuals, on-demand training, digital recordkeeping, and a dedicated hotline. 

CST has decades of experience helping businesses comply with OSHA regulations and is the leader in providing custom OSHA compliance to small businesses nationwide. 

“Providing workplace safety support to our Members is critical to ensuring their businesses are running smoothly and OSHA regulations can be daunting,” said Katie Semuta, CVT, and Director of Member Services & Outreach at PVMA. “We are thrilled to offer CST to our Members to help with their compliance and workplace safety.” 

CST will offer PVMA Members fully customized OSHA safety programs(Members must be logged in to their PVMA Member account) including unlimited online training modules, Certified Safety Data Sheets, and dedicated compliance consulting. OSHA Compliance Programs give veterinarians and practice managers a comprehensive review of the requirements of select health and safety standards. Each program comes with a written compliance plan, including recordkeeping requirements, fact sheets, customizable forms, and other resources. Programs offered are: 

  • Emergency Action and Fire Safety Program 
  • Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Program 
  • Hazard Communication Program 
  • Respiratory Protection Program 
  • Personal Protective Equipment Program 
  • Spill Response Program 
  • Radiation Safety Program 
  • Anesthesia Safety Program 
  • Hearing Protection Program 
  • Ergonomics and Workplace Safety Program 
  • Infectious Disease Prevention Program 


“We are excited to work with PVMA,” said Mark Harrison, President of CST. “They are a first-rate veterinary association and have been serving their Members successfully since 1883. As a member benefit, we are able to help PVMA Members navigate the complexities of OSHA at an affordable price with the same customization we have provided to our clients nationwide for 30 years.” 

CST and PVMA will also offer an OSHA Hotline as an exclusive benefit for PVMA Members. The hotline, provided at no charge to Members, offers immediate answers to pressing questions regarding health and safety compliance. 

Members interested in a complete veterinary OSHA safety audit of their facility and in-person training can enlist CST to visit their facility. The in-person experience will include an onsite inspection, a corrective action plan, staff training, and ongoing recordkeeping. 

“In these evolving times, we are grateful to offer both in-person and online OSHA services to veterinarians and their colleagues,” Mark Harrison said. “We know how hard the pandemic has hit the industry. Our job is to help veterinarians stay safe and in compliance affordably and to allow them to do what they do best: serve their families and communities in times of need.” 


Rhode Island


RI H7665/ S2444 authorizes licensed veterinarians to control and prescribe chorionic gonadotropin strictly for farm cattle treatments or any nonhuman species and when that use is approved by the Food and Drug Administration. This act would take effect upon passage.

State Board
DE HB425 adds 2 members to the Lyme Disease Oversight Board, including an infectious disease epidemiologist and a licensed veterinarian or entomology specialist. 


Veterinarians remind pet owners to update their Rabies vaccinations 

An unvaccinated hunting dog in East Tennessee serves as a sad reminder to vaccinate your pet to protect them and your family from the Rabies virus. 

Rabies is 100% preventable with vaccinations and 100% fatal once a victim starts showing symptoms. It is a progressive viral disease of the central nervous system contracted through the saliva of an infected animal. 

In this case, a 9-year-old male dog presented with trouble swallowing and closing his mouth. He did not have specific “foaming at the mouth” signs of Rabies and was friendly toward staff. Veterinarians at White Pine Animal Hospital in Jefferson County treated him, but his health continued to decline. He was ultimately euthanized, and samples of brain tissue were sent for testing. The test for Rabies came back positive and as a skunk variant, so he was likely bitten by a rabid skunk through his chain-link outdoor kennel. 

More than a dozen people including the dog’s family members and the veterinary staff have undergone a series of Rabies vaccinations or boosters. 

Tennessee law requires that dogs over 6 months of age be vaccinated for Rabies. If you own a dog (or cat) with an unknown vaccination history, or it has been more than three years since their last Rabies vaccination, veterinarians recommend vaccinating as soon as possible.


Administrative Rules for Veterinarians, proposed in May, go into effect July 15, 2022. 

Administrative Rules for Veterinarians  


1-1 “Client” means a person seeking veterinary care on behalf of a patient. 
1-2 “Companion animal” means an animal for which a client has assumed responsibility and ownership
         as an individual companion or service animal.
1-3 “Direct Supervision” means oversight by a licensed veterinarian available to physically intervene in
         the care of an animal. 
1-4 “Director” means the Director of Professional Regulation. 
1-5 “Foreign” means emanating from or existing within a governmental jurisdiction other than the State
         of Vermont.
1-6 “License” or “licensure” refers to any credential issued by the Office under these rules, including a
         certification or registration, except where context clearly indicates reference to a foreign or other
         professional license. 
1-7 “Licensee” means a person or entity seeking or holding a license under these rules.  
1-8 “Non-companion animal” means an animal raised for economic or agricultural purposes.  
1-9 “Office” means the Office of Professional Regulation.  
1-10 “Office website” means sos.vermont.gov/opr.  
1-11 “Patient” means an animal that is the subject of veterinary care.  
1-12 “Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship” or “VCPR” is defined at 26 V.S.A. § 2433. See Rule 8-3, infra 


2-1 Applicable Law. The practice of veterinary medicine is defined and regulated pursuant to 26 V.S.A. § 2401 et seq. Copies of these and other statutes are available online at www.legislature.vermont.gov/statutes/. The Office administers licensure in conformity with these and other Vermont laws, to include the Administrative Procedure Act, 3 V.S.A. § 800 et seq.; the Public Records Act, 1 V.S.A. § 315 et seq.; and the Laws of Professional Regulation, 3 V.S.A. § 121 et seq.  

2-2 Resources for Applicants and Licensees. The Office maintains a website at sos.vermont.gov/opr with information and links relevant to all licensed professionals. Information specific to veterinarians is available from sos.vermont.gov/veterinary-medicine/statutes-rules- resources/.  

2-3 U.S. Armed Forces. The Director may accept toward the requirements of these rules relevant military education, training, or service completed by a member of the U.S. Armed Forces and may expedite licensure of a person who left licensed employment in another state secondary to a spouse’s military transfer to Vermont. 3 V.S.A. § 123(g). Service members and the spouses of service members should visit the Office website for details. 



3-1 Applications. Online license applications must be completed through the Office website. 
(a) Incomplete applications will not be processed. Applications are complete only when all required questions have been answered fully, all attestations made, all required documentation and materials provided, and all fees paid.  
(b) When the Board, or the Office on the Board’s behalf, intends to deny an application, notice stating the reasons for the action shall be given to the applicant by certified mail, whereupon the applicant shall have 30 days to petition for a hearing before an administrative law officer.  
(c) The Board may refuse to accept any application found to be redundant with a denied or in-process application. 
(d) The Board may deem expired any application that is left pending for six months.  

3-2 Complaints. Complaints against licensees, applicants for licensure, or persons practicing without a license may be submitted through the Office website, at sos.vermont.gov/opr/complaints-conduct-discipline/.  

3-3 Contested Cases. Procedures in contested cases relating to licensure or discipline are governed by the Office of Professional Regulation Administrative Rules of Practice, CVR 04-030- 005, as those rules may from time to time be modified.  

3-4 Declaratory Rulings. Petitions for declaratory rulings as to the applicability of any statutory provision or of any rule or order of the Board or Office may be made pursuant to 3 V.S.A. § 808 and Office procedure.  

3-5 Conflict of Standards. Where a standard of unprofessional conduct set forth in statute conflicts with a standard set forth in rule, the standard that is most protective of the public shall govern. See 3 V.S.A. § 129a(e).  

3-6 Determination of Equivalency. Where the Board or Director is permitted by law or rule to accept certain training or experience on the basis of equivalence to a fixed standard, it is the burden of the applicant or licensee to establish equivalence to the Board or Director’s satisfaction, by producing credible, clear, and convincing evidence of the same. The Board and the Office have no obligation to research the bona fides of any institution, program, course, degree, certification, practicum, fellowship, or examination.  

3-7 Waiver or Variance. The Board will not grant routine waivers or variances from any provisions of these rules without amending the rules. See 3 V.S.A. § 845. Where, in extraordinary circumstances, application of a rule would result in manifest unfairness, an absurd result, unjustifiable inefficiency, or an outcome otherwise inimical to the public health, safety, and welfare, the Board may, upon written request of an interested party, so find, grant a waiver with or without particular conditions and limitations, and record the action. 

 3-8 Inspection. All veterinary hospitals and other non-residential premises used by licensees in relation to the provision of veterinary services shall be open to announced or unannounced visits by Office inspectors during regular business hours.  

3-9 Contacting the Board. See the Office website for contact details. Send mail to: 
Office of Professional Regulation, ATTN: Board of Veterinary Medicine, 89 Main Street, 3rd Floor, Montpelier, VT 05620-3402.  


4-1 Core requirements. An applicant is eligible for licensure who has: 
(a) reached the age of majority; 
(b) graduated from a school of veterinary medicine accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association or the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association; and 
(c) passed the North American Veterinary Licensing Examination (NAVLE), or any subsequent licensing examinations prepared under the authority of the National Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners (NBVME) or its successor organization, within two years preceding application.  

4-2 International Veterinary Graduates not Licensed in the United States or Canada. In lieu of the graduation requirement of Rule 4-1(b), an applicant may present a certificate issued by the Educational Commission for Foreign Veterinary Graduates (ECFVG), its successor organization, or an organization acceptable to the Board.  

4-3 Veterinary Graduates Licensed Elsewhere in the United States or Canada. A person licensed or certified in good standing under the laws of another jurisdiction may be eligible for licensure without examination as specified by 26 V.S.A. § 2424.  

4-4 State Laws & Rules. Examination on Vermont-specific laws and rules is not required. All veterinarians are responsible to maintain ongoing familiarity with State and Federal laws and rules governing the practice of the profession, just as all veterinarians are responsible to follow evolving practice standards. Ignorance of regulatory requirements does not excuse noncompliance. Means of ensuring orientation to regulatory obligations include participation in professional associations, consultation with qualified legal counsel, subscription to professional publications, and periodic online monitoring of legislative and regulatory developments.  

4-5 Consultation Exemption. Board licensure is not required of a veterinarian regularly licensed in another jurisdiction consulting with a licensed veterinarian in this State. Accord 26 V.S.A. § 2403(5). Exempt consultation is limited to the provision of specialized professional advice or assessment, or the demonstration of clinical practices. A consulting veterinarian is, for purposes of professional responsibility, a delegate of the Vermont veterinarian with whom he or she consults and may provide veterinary services only to animals with which the Vermont veterinarian has a valid VCPR and as requested by the Vermont veterinarian.  

4-6 Livestock Management and Husbandry Exemption. Board licensure is not required of persons engaged in accepted livestock management practices and animal husbandry practices. See 26 V.S.A. § 2403(2). Embryo transfer is not exempt as an accepted livestock management practice and may be performed only by or under the direct supervision of a Vermont-licensed veterinarian. 


5-1 Biennial Licensing Period. Licenses are valid for fixed, two-year periods. Expiration dates are printed on licenses. A license expires if not renewed by midnight on the date of expiry. Practice under an expired license is prohibited. An initial license issued fewer than 90 days prior to the beginning of the fixed biennial period shall be valid through the end of full biennial 
licensing period following initial licensure. A lookup tool on the Office website may be considered a primary source verification as to license status and expiration.  

5-2 License Renewal. Online license renewal applications must be completed through the Office website. The Office transmits email reminders to licensees at the end of each biennial licensing period; however, non-receipt of such reminders shall not excuse a licensee from the obligation to maintain continuous licensure or the consequences of failing to do so. Practicing while a license is lapsed is a violation of 3 V.S.A. § 127.  

5-3 Late Renewal Penalties. Late renewal applications are subject to reinstatement fees, which may be waived in certain circumstances. See 3 V.S.A. § 127(d). Reinstatement waivers may be requested through the online licensing system.  

5-4 Extended License Lapse. A license expired for five or fewer years may be reactivated as of right upon proof of continuous veterinary practice elsewhere, or if veterinary practice ceased, upon completion of the continuing education required in the preceding biennial licensing period. When a license has been expired for five or more years, a licensee’s preparation to return to practice will be assessed on a case-by-case basis. After consultation with the Board, the Director may require re-training, testing, or re-application. See 3 V.S.A. § 135; 26 V.S.A. § 2426.  


6-1 Continuing Education 
(a) Requirement. All licensees have a duty to maintain professional competence through conscientious pursuit of professional learning opportunities, interaction with peers, and continual review of relevant scientific and professional literature. In each biennial licensing period, a licensee shall devote at least 24 hours to such pursuits and shall attest to having done so as a condition of renewal.  

(b) Relevance. Licensees are expected to identify and pursue appropriate learning opportunities in good faith. Activities claimed under this rule shall be reasonably calculated to improve the particular professional practice of the licensee, shall be relevant, and shall be oriented toward evidence-based practice or the improvement of technical skill. Express approval of continuing learning opportunities is not required.  

(c) Documentation. A licensee shall document participation in professional learning activities. For courses, a licensee shall retain completion certificates. For non-course activities, such as reading, research, presentation, or curriculum development, a licensee shall maintain a contemporaneous log of pertinent details, such as journal citations; presentation titles, locations, dates, sponsors, and host institutions; the length of time spent on the activity; and a brief, written summary of the substantive reading, research, presentation, or curriculum developed. A form log is available at the Board website. Certificates and logs must be retained for four years. The Board may audit continuing education compliance at any time.  


7-1 Duty to Update and Self-Report. Applicants and licensees owe a duty of candor to the Board and shall disclose circumstances that may call for further investigation to protect the public. That a matter is reportable does not imply that the matter necessarily is a basis for discipline. A licensee, including an applicant for licensure, shall report to the Office, in writing, within 30 days:  

(a) any change of name, e-mail, or mailing address; 
(b) any material inaccuracy or change in circumstance relative to any application question, where the changed circumstance arises between submission of a license application and issuance of the license sought; 
(c) any arrest or charge for conduct occurring in the course of, or in direct relation to, the practice of veterinary medicine; 
(d) any conviction for any criminal act; 
(e) any injunction or other order of a court or regulatory authority, including an assurance of discontinuance, limiting the licensee’s ability to practice; 
(f) any legal claim, settlement, or judgment arising from alleged professional negligence, misconduct, or malpractice; and 
(g) any adverse action against a foreign professional license, where the adverse action relates to an allegation of misconduct, substandard practice, or unethical conduct.  
(h) Pursuant to 6 V.S.A. § 1162, a veterinarian shall immediately report to the State Veterinarian:  

7-2 Duty to Report Disease.  

  1. the discovery of any domestic animal that is infected with, is suspected of being infected with, or has been exposed to a disease reportable under 6 V.S.A. ch. 102;
  2. any sudden unexplained morbidity or mortality in a herd or flock.
    (b) A veterinarian shall report to the Secretary of Agriculture, Food & Markets any horse that has tested positive for equine infectious anemia and shall see that the animal is  quarantined if required by 6 V.S.A. § 1182(c). 

(c) A veterinarian shall report to the Commissioner of Health any animal or animals having or suspected of having any disease that can result from bioterrorism, epidemic or pandemic disease, or novel and highly fatal infectious agents or biological toxins, and those that might pose a risk of a significant number of human and animal fatalities or incidents of permanent or long-term disability. 13 V.S.A. § 3504(d).  


8-1 Ethical Conduct. The Board may consider the Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics of the AVMA a recognized source of professional standards when determining “the essential standards of acceptable and prevailing practice” for purposes of 26 V.S.A. § 129a(b). This section shall not be construed as imposing any mandatory-reporting obligation not otherwise present under Vermont law.  

8-2 Compliance with Other Law. Licensees must comply with all federal, state and local laws, governing the practice of the profession. 3 V.S.A. 129a(a)(3).  

8-3 The Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship. The three elements of a VCPR—assumption of responsibility for care, sufficient knowledge of the patient, and availability – are defined more particularly at 26 V.S.A. § 2433, together with important related principles not restated in these Rules. A valid VCPR:  

(a) must exist prior to the provision of any veterinary care, other than in a rabies clinic or an emergency; and  

(b) must exist prior to issuance of a veterinary feed directive or any activity relative to the provision, administration, authorization, or prescribing of veterinary prescription drugs. 

8-4 Telepractice. When determining whether a valid VCPR has been established, the Board will inquire into the sufficiency, reliability, and validity of the veterinarian’s knowledge, not the means or modality by which that knowledge was obtained. Veterinarians are authorized to use their reasoned clinical judgment to determine when and how telemedicine modalities may be used.  

(a) Common standard of care. A Veterinarian using telemedicine must take appropriate steps to establish a VCPR, obtain informed consent from the client, and conduct all necessary patient evaluations consistent with currently acceptable standards of care. Some patient presentations are appropriate for the use of telemedicine as a component of, or in lieu of, hands-on medical care, while others are not.  

(b) Federal laws and rules. This rule shall not be construed as superseding any contrary law or rule of the United States Food & Drug Administration.  

8-5 Veterinary Records: Companion Animals. For each companion animal with which a veterinarian has a VCPR, the veterinarian shall retain a distinct file including:  

(a) client and patient information; 
(b) a competent history; 
(c) individualized entries recording each assessment, treatment, consultation, procedure, intervention, diagnosis, and plan; and 
(d) the identity of each person providing such service.  

8-6 Veterinary Records: Non-companion animals. Group records are acceptable for non- companion animals; provided, however, that an individual record shall be initiated when indicated by the health status of the animal.  

8-7 Records Retention and Production. A veterinarian shall retain patient records for not fewer than seven years from last contact with an animal, or in contexts where other law requires longer retention, for the longer period. Failure to keep appropriate records may constitute unprofessional conduct. 3 V.S.A. § 129a(a)(3). Records shall be typed when practicable under the circumstances, legible, reasonably protected from inadvertent destruction, and fit to transmit relevant content to a subsequent provider of care. Records shall be made available promptly upon written request of a client and may not be withheld for non-payment; provided, however, that a veterinarian may require that a client pay actual costs of production of transmission, such as copying and postage. See 3 V.S.A. § 129a(a)(8).  

8-8 Records Disposition. A veterinarian shall have in place a plan for responsible disposition of patient veterinary records in the event the veterinarian should become incapacitated or unexpectedly discontinue practice. 3 V.S.A. § 129a(a)(25). Group practices may satisfy this requirement through a written agreement among partners that contemplates dissolution of the partnership or separation of a partner. Any veterinarian may satisfy this requirement through written agreement with a professional peer, attorney, or other person or organization credibly capable of seeing to appropriate disposition of records. A veterinarian’s records-disposition plan shall be available upon request of a client or the Board, but need not be filed with the Board unless requested.  

8-9 Delegation. A licensee shall delegate professional responsibilities only to those whom the licensed professional knows, or has reason to know, is qualified by training, experience, education, or licensing credentials to perform them. Diagnosis, prescription, and surgery are not delegable by a veterinarian to a non-veterinarian.  

8-10 Alternative Therapies. Alternative therapies may be provided in conformity with accepted principles of veterinary ethics; provided, however, that a veterinarian shall not advertise, promote, or recommend a therapy or treatment in a manner tending to deceive the public or to suggest a degree of reliability or efficacy unsupported by competent evidence and professional judgment. See 26 V.S.A. § 129a(a)(17).  

8-11 Integration of Complementary Care Providers. Vermont law does not authorize any non- veterinarian licensed under Title 26 to undertake any act within the scope of veterinary medical practice. Non-veterinarian providers may be skilled in certain modalities that may be safely applied for therapeutic benefit to animals under the supervision of a veterinarian. A veterinarian may delegate veterinary treatments to such providers if:  

(a) the veterinarian has a valid VCPR; 
(b) the requirements of Rule 8-9 are satisfied; 
(c) the veterinarian has verified that the provider is oriented to the unique anatomy, physiology, and behavior of the animal to be treated by documented training additional to that required for the provider to practice his or her care modality on humans; 
(d) the veterinarian has a competent clinical and evidential basis to believe the service will be of therapeutic benefit; 
(e) the veterinarian has prescribed in writing the treatment or act to be performed; 
(f) the veterinarian and delegate provider have established a written plan of care recorded in the veterinary record; 
(g) an appropriately qualified veterinarian is available to consult and arrange for intervention in the event of complications; and 
(h) the informed consent of the client is obtained and recorded in the veterinary record, including as to any compensation exchanged between veterinarian and delegate provider.  

8-12 Rabies Vaccination; VCPR Not Required; Minimal Recordkeeping. It is in the interest of the public health, safety, and welfare that veterinarians participate in rabies vaccination clinics and offer office-based rabies vaccination. A VCPR is not required. A veterinarian participating in a vaccination clinic may do so in conformity with the Agency of Agriculture, Food & Markets’ Rabies Vaccination Clinic Rule, CVR 20-022-018, or successor rules. For purposes of those rules, “examination” means such assessment as may be necessary to determine whether the animal is fit for vaccination and does not mean a comprehensive evaluation of health. A veterinarian participating in a rabies vaccination clinic, who complies with records requirements specified in CVR 20-022-018 or successor rules, is excused from the patient recordkeeping requirements in these Rules  


9-1 Unprofessional Conduct. Unprofessional conduct includes those acts set out at 3 V.S.A. § 129a (applicable to all professional licensees). Violation of these rules is cognizable as unprofessional conduct pursuant to 3 V.S.A. § 129a(a)(3).  

9-2 Remedies. Upon a finding by the Board that a licensee, applicant, or person who later becomes an applicant has committed unprofessional conduct, within or without this State, or has had a license application denied or a license revoked, suspended, limited, conditioned, or otherwise disciplined by a licensing agency in another jurisdiction for conduct which would constitute unprofessional conduct in this State, or has surrendered a license while under investigation for unprofessional conduct, the Board may warn, reprimand, suspend, revoke, limit, condition, deny, or prevent the renewal of a license. See 3 V.S.A. § 129(a). A license may be summarily suspended pending further proceedings, consistent with 3 V.S.A. § 814(c), upon a finding that public health, safety, or welfare imperatively requires emergency action.


New WSVMA member wellbeing benefit – Employee Assistance Program 

Everyone occasionally experiences personal and family-related problems which can make life a difficult balancing act. Washington State Veterinary Medical Association (WSVMA) has chosen to provide a professional counseling resource that is compassionate and responsive in assisting you through difficult times and situations. Stress due to unresolved personal problems, family concerns, or problems with substance misuse imposes emotional burdens which, if untreated, can deteriorate both your personal happiness and success in life. 

CorpCare Associates, Inc., your Employee Assistance Program (EAP) provider, uses fully licensed and credentialed counselors, located nationally, offering convenient appointment times including day, evening, and weekend. Telehealth counseling is also available. All EAP counselors are carefully selected and have years of clinical experience. When meeting with an EAP counselor, you are guaranteed a caring and professional experience. Assistance is available twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. 

Through your association membership, you get a steep discount on these benefits. For small companies with under 100 employees, the typical cost of an EAP plan is thousands of dollars. We can offer these low-cost plans due to the aggregate membership; we treat all hospitals and clinics as if they were one large company. Hospitals can choose from a 3 or 5-session model. Employees and their dependents each get either 3 or 5 counseling sessions per year based on your practice’s chosen plan. Those sessions are specifically for counseling: the phone call to start the process doesn’t count as a session, a consultation with an attorney is a separate service, and the work-life benefits are all independent and in addition to counseling. 

Once you sign up for your hospital, you will receive digital promotional materials, including fliers and a brochure. You, your employees, and dependents will then have access to all the EAP benefits for your benefit year: July 1 – June 30. Renewal is not automatic, so when you are notified in June that it is time for renewal, you can choose to renew, cancel, or even change the session plan if you prefer. 

With the Great Resignation, research is finding that employees are focused on finding employers who put their needs first and make them feel valued. Besides pay, employees value a positive culture, sense of purpose, and mental health/wellbeing benefits. You can help create these key factors for your team with an EAP. 

If you are a WSVMA member you can access this benefit today! Go here to find out the cost and contact information to get your EAP plan started. If you have questions, feel free to contact the WSVMA at info@wsvma.org. This benefit is exclusive to members. Not a member? Become one today to take advantage of this amazing program! 


Pacific Northwest Veterinary Conference – Have you registered? 

Online registration is open for this year’s Pacific NW Conference taking place Sept. 30-Oct. 2, 2022 at the Greater Tacoma Convention Center. Register today to learn from stellar scientific speakers, business experts, and special guests that will be presenting a variety of cutting-edge topics. Veterinary technicians will hold their Annual Conference concurrently. Finally, we’re back in person! 

This year’s keynote speaker, Dr. Mary Gardner will speak on Sat., Oct. 1 on geriatrics and end of life. Care Credit is graciously sponsoring this program. 

Small Animal Medicine Program 

The Small Animal Medicine Program covers quite a range of topics this year. Featured speakers and topics include: 

  • Mark Acierno, DVM, MBA, DACVIM – Urology/Nephrology 
  • Eric Hoots DVM, MS, DACVS – Surgery 
  • Mike Thoesen, DVM, MS, DAVCS – Diagnosis/treatment of developmental bone diseases 
  • Mark Ottinger, DVM, CCRP –Physical rehabilitation 
  • Tamara Grubb, DVM, Ph.D., DACVAA – Pain management 
  • Jessica Bunch, DVM, CCRT, CVA – Therapeutic lasers 
  • Nell Ostermeier, DVM, CVA, FAAVA – Acupuncture and traditional Chinese veterinary medicine 
  • Jordan Nickell, DVM, DACVAA and Teela Jones, DVM, MS, DACVAA – Anesthesia 
  • Vanessa Rizzo, DVM, DACVO – Oncology 
  • Lauren Powers, DVM, DAVBP – Avian and exotic pet medicine and surgery 
  • Andrea Fascetti, VMD, PHD, DACVN, DACVIM – Nutrition 

Equine Medicine Program 

The Equine Medicine Program covers a range of topics this year. Featured speakers include: 

  • Ashley Cameron, DVM, DACVS (candidate) – Surgery 
  • Amanda Craven, DVM – Equine gastrointestinal disease 
  • Kurt Selberg, DVM, DACVR – Radiology 
  • Jamie Pribyl, DVM – Veterinary wellbeing and equine asthma 
  • John Chalk, DVM, CPA, CFA – Business management 
  • Jacquelin Boggs, DVM, MS, DACVIM, Bobby Cowles, DVM, MS, MBA, and Steve Latimer, DVM, MS – Regenerative medicine 

 Large Animal Medicine Program 

Featured speakers in the Large Animal Medicine program include: 

  • Scott Radke, DVM, DABVT – Toxicology 
  • Fauna Smith, DVM, Ph.D., DACVIM – Small ruminant medicine 
  • Amber Itle, DVM, MS – State Veterinarian updates and farm biosecurity plans 
  • Craig McConnel, DVM, Ph.D. – Research updates 
  • Laura Williams, DVM, Ph.D. – Ruminant parasites 
  • Mark Kirkpatrick, DVM, MS – Genomic programs in dairy hers 
  • Brian Joseph, DVM, MFAS, CertAQV – Climate change and veterinary medicine  

Practice Management and Can’t-Miss Topics 

Can’t find a technician to hire? Not entirely sure of what they’re legally allowed to do? Join us for a half-day in a Master Class in Finding and Retaining Veterinary Technicians. This is an important program to help you address the technician shortage. 

Well-being is a major focus at this year’s conference. Well-known Julie Squires, CCFS will present a half-day to help you struggle less, suffer less and love your life, your work, and yourself more. Dr. Brian Joseph presents a session on finding peace with your veterinary career. Sajaan Bhakta, Ph.D. will offer assistance to help you manage compassion fatigue, anxiety, and stress. Jon Tunheim, JD speaks on how hope is an important and leading predictor of wellbeing. 

On our recent diversity, equity, and inclusion survey, we received requests for sessions on creating an inclusive work culture and mastering your cross-cultural communication skills. Join Dr. Marie Sato Quicksall from the Multicultural Veterinary Medical Association for these two workshops. 

Vet Candy’s Dr. Jill Lopez will present a half-day on a variety of timely professional topics you won’t want to miss. She’ll highlight veterinary success stories, share branding secrets for your practice and discuss five non-traditional veterinary careers. 

Exciting sessions abound on compounding regulatory trends, starting a new veterinary practice, reportable diseases in Washington, veterinary regulatory activity, hot legal topics, as well as a session on Orcas and their possible extinction. 

Exhibit Hall 

We anticipate a full exhibit hall with up to 100 exhibitors and sponsors so you can learn about the latest goods and services they offer to help us in our work. Thanks to our platinum sponsor, Omni Practice Group, and our many exhibitors and sponsors, attendees will have ample opportunities to meet with vendor representatives, learn about their products, and place orders.  


This year’s conference will provide robust opportunities for you to reunite and reconnect with your colleagues and old friends and meet new ones. We’ll have a social with a DJ on Friday night, awards, contests, and raffles with prizes to win – all to make your conference experience fun and memorable. Closer to the conference, we’ll launch the PNWVC App where you can set your schedule, review each session, and download proceedings. 

Access conference information on the WSVMA website and watch for the registration packet to arrive in your mailbox soon. The weekend promises to be fun and educational and we look forward to seeing you at the premier Pacific Northwest CE weekend for veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and the entire veterinary team! 

Veterinarians, veterinary students, and hospital staff (except technicians and assistants) register here. 

Veterinary technicians and assistants, register here 



Final Permanent Rules Filed with LRB for Administrative Code Publication 

Scheduled Effective Date: August 1, 2022 
CR 21-062 – Veterinarians and veterinary technicians. 
(reported previously/below in archive when adopted) 

The proposed rule makes structural changes, minor language changes, and telehealth changes as described below. 

Structural Changes 

— Consolidates the eleven existing rule chapters into three chapters: one for veterinarians, one for veterinary technicians, and one for the professional assistance program. Consolidation makes the rules easier to access quickly. 
— Adds a chapter for relevant complaint procedures that did not transfer in the previous rules from DSPS to DATCP. 
— States the current fee amounts in rule. Fee amounts do not change. 

Minor Language Changes 

— Makes changes regarding procedures and processes.  

— Removes the word annual from references to the review of colleges and technical schools.

— Expands the temporary veterinary permit process to include applicants who are scheduled to take
     or are awaiting results from the examination on state laws and rules.

— Clarifies that applicants for licensure who have previously been licensed in Wisconsin or another
     jurisdiction must apply by endorsement.

— Adds for clarity and consistency a section identifying common situations in which the board may require
     additional information from an applicant when reviewing an application. 

— States more clearly that the board may reprimand the licensee or deny, suspend, limit or revoke a
    credential for cause, including filing an incomplete or fraudulent application, misrepresenting information
    on an application, or violating the rule chapter or Wis. Stat. ch. 

— Makes technical changes and updates. 

— Adds the denial of a license to the list of reasons for a temporary veterinary permit to expire. 

— Allows applicants to provide proof of graduation through the American Association of Veterinary
    State Boards (AAVSB), which allows for electronic submissions using the AAVSB online system.

— Adds direction in the rules to assure the requirements for access to health care records required in
    Wis. Stat. s. 
89.075 are clear and consistently applied. 

— Removes an obsolete provision regarding continuing education auditing of journal articles read.
    The Board previously eliminated the ability to self-study journal articles and mistakenly did not also 
    eliminate this provision regarding auditing.

— Clarifies the continuing education requirements for persons who have not been credentialed for
    more than 5 years. 
— Adds language to clearly state license exemptions. 

— Allows veterinarians to delegate additional veterinary medical acts to certified veterinary technicians
    and unlicensed assistants.

— Allows veterinarians to delegate the placement of intravenous catheters to unlicensed assistants
    under the direct supervision of the veterinarian present on the premises, per requests from

— Additional changes to the delegation of veterinary medical acts are included in the telehealth
    section of this summary.

— Makes changes for consistency and ease of use the places in which rule requirements repeat, or
    refer to requirements in statute.

— Modifies language regarding unprofessional conduct so that it also refers to Wis. Stat. s. 89.07 (1).  

— Modifies language regarding prescribing and dispensing a veterinary drug to refer to Wis. Stat.
89.068 (1) (c).  

— Makes a correction to the delegation of rabies vaccinations to reflect Wis. Stat. s. 95.21 (2) (a).  

— Modifies terminology for clarity and consistency. 

— Adds additional definitions and updates existing definitions language for clarity. 

— Renames “temporary permit” to “temporary veterinary permit” and renamed “temporary consulting
    permit” to “veterinary consulting permit.”

— Changes language to use the word “dispense” rather than “sell” to be more consistent with statutory
    language and definitions to make the language clearer and easier to understand.

— Adds a note clarifying that the board accepts “veterinary nurse” as equivalent to “veterinary technician.” 

 Telehealth Changes 

— Adds definitions related to telehealth.  

— Adds definitions related to veterinary consulting and clarifies that a consulting veterinarian or
    other consultant may not do any of the following:

— Visit the patient or client or communicate directly with the client without the knowledge of the
    attending veterinarian. 

— Take charge of a case or problem without the consent of the attending veterinarian and the client. 

— Clarifies that the practice of veterinary medicine takes place where the animal is located at the
    time of practice, in alignment with Wis. Stat. §§ 
89.05 (1)and 89.02 (6).  

— Clarifies that in order to practice veterinary medicine in Wisconsin a veterinarian must be
    licensed in Wisconsin and have an established veterinary-client-patient relationship (VCPR) with
    the client. A VCPR must be established via an in-person physical exam, or timely medically
    appropriate visits to the premises on which the patient is kept. It may not be established by
    telehealth technologies. 

— Clarifies that the VCPR, once established, extends to other veterinarians within the practice, or relief
    veterinarians within the practice, that have access to, and have reviewed, the medical history and
    records of the animal. 

— Clarifies that records must be kept, regardless of the encounter type.  

— Clarifies, in accordance with Wis. Stat. § 89.02(8) (c), that an animal owner must be able to easily seek
     follow-up care or information from the veterinarian who conducts an encounter while using telehealth

— Expands the delegation of medical services to allow a veterinarian to delegate the following items to a 
     certified veterinary technician (CVT) if the veterinarian is available to communicate via telehealth
     technologies within five minutes. Under current rules, these items may only be delegated to a CVT if
     the veterinarian is personally present on the premises. 

— Performing diagnostic radiographic awake contrast studies not requiring general anesthesia. 

— Sample collection via a cystocentesis procedure. 

— Placement of intravenous catheters. 

— Suturing of tubes and catheters. 

— Fine needle aspirate of a mass. 

CR 21-062  Rule Text 

Veterinary Examining Board (VE) 

Administrative Code Chapters Affected: 

Ch. VE 1   (Revised) 
Ch. VE 2   (Revised) 
Ch. VE 3   (Revised) 
Ch. VE 4   (Repealed) 
Ch. VE 5   (Repealed) 
Ch. VE 6   (Repealed) 
Ch. VE 7   (Repealed) 
Ch. VE 8   (Repealed) 
Ch. VE 9   (Repealed) 
Ch. VE 10 (Repealed) 
Ch. VE 11 (Revised) 

Related to: Veterinarians and veterinary technicians 

Date Rule Approved by Governor: February 10, 2022 
Date Rule Filed with LRB: June 24, 2022 
Scheduled Publication Date: July 25, 2022 
Scheduled Effective Date: August 1, 2022